Note: this is a draft. Please let me know if you have comments, suggestions, or pictures.

Adjective. Bitter, and depending on context, astringent (keirapirap). When translating to English, Samburu speakers don’t differentiate between “bitter” and “astringent,” lumping them both under “bitter”. To be sure what is meant when speaking to a Samburu in English, you must ask where the taste is felt: on the tongue, or on back of the throat. You can also clarify by using the Samburu word for astringent, keirapirap. Milk may become intrinsically bitter if the cow has been grazing on loduaporo (need botanical name). More commonly, bitterness enters the milk through the character of the smoke that impregnates the calabash when it is cleaned. Bitterness and astringency tend to be fused in the flavors that emanate from the walls of the calabash. Thus, a little of keirapirap is often embedded inside the kodua of milk from a prepared calabash. Opinions about the positive and negative qualities of bitterness vary. As a rule, a little kodua is perceived a good thing, but, as in many other culinary cultures, strong bitter and astringent tastes are preferred by some people, and rejected by most as being too strong.

[Previous draft. Negative for milk. See loduaporo for a plant that makes the cow’s milk bitter.
Used in other contexts where it may be positive. Examples: some greens such as managu (related to sakuma), a rainy season fruit called lmorijoi, some solid (not liquid), dark, blackish honey from the flowers of the lparaa (many people like it, it’s good for a sore throat).]

[Notes. A very simple explanation. When you start using that herb everyday, there is the possibility that that herb will make the milk bitter. Even if they use one particular one—all of them if you keep using the same one—the content of that herb in that calabash makes the calabash bitter. In a week, three times in a week, like every other day, if you are milking everyday. If not milking everyday, might only be once in a week, but still shift. You keep changing as much as possible, not just alternate. It defeats the tongue. Meaning the tongue cannot hold it. It discomforts the tongue. It is bitter. Bitter to the extent the tongue cannot hold the bitterness. Like quinine. Burns the throat. Lmorijoi or lmarguet trees (first rain honey, white) used medicinally and not allowed for pregnant women; also some herbs, for example, lneryioy bark used as a treatment for cows that have retained their placenta after birth, especially stillbirth.]

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