Note: this is a draft. Please let me know if you have comments, suggestions, or pictures.

Astringent. This is felt at the back of the throat. Like hot chilli pepper or skin of orange burn the tongue and are felt near your tonsils. The smoke cured and fermented milks often have an astringent aftertaste felt in the back of the throat from the smoke-impregnated wood. Samburu tend to translate this word as ‘bitter,’ but ‘bitter’ is kodua, one of the fundamental tastes along with sweet kemelok, sour [?], salty makakai, and umami. This taste develops the longer the milk is kept in the calabash. It is especially pronounced when bitter woods, like serai, are used to clean the calabash, and the calabash is not well wiped after the ash is poured out, alani. Alani is not wiping well.

Keirapera is the feeling that is left after you have swallowed the milk. Comes from bitterness, which might come from the forage, might come from the process of preparing the milk and the long period of storing. The longer milk is stored, the more of this sensation leaches out.

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